1: Which of the following is a common application of digital image processing in forensic science?
a) Fingerprint analysis
b) Blood spatter analysis
c) Handwriting analysis
d) Facial recognition
Answer: d) Facial recognition
d) is correct because facial recognition technology, a common application of digital image processing, is utilized in forensic science for identifying individuals from images or videos. It involves analyzing facial features and patterns to match or identify potential suspects or persons of interest.
2: Which techniques are commonly used in digital image enhancement for forensic analysis?
a) Noise reduction
b) Histogram equalization
c) Edge detection
d) All of the above
Answer: d) All of the above
a) is correct because noise reduction techniques are commonly employed in digital image enhancement to reduce unwanted artifacts or pixel-level disturbances in the image.
b) is correct because histogram equalization is used to improve the contrast and enhance details in an image by redistributing pixel intensity values across the histogram.
c) is correct because edge detection techniques are commonly used to identify and highlight the boundaries or edges of objects in an image, aiding in the analysis and interpretation of forensic evidence.
Thus, all options listed (a, b, and c) are correct.
3: Which of the following is a potential limitation of digital image analysis in forensic science?
a) Loss of image quality during compression
b) Inability to recover deleted images
c) Lack of accuracy in facial recognition
d) Limited file format compatibility
Answer: a) Loss of image quality during compression
a) is correct because when digital images are compressed using certain file formats or techniques, such as lossy compression, it can result in a loss of image quality and details. This loss of information may impact the accuracy and reliability of the analysis.
b) is incorrect because while recovering deleted images can be challenging, it is not necessarily a limitation of digital image analysis itself. It may require specialized tools or techniques for data recovery.
c) is incorrect because accuracy in facial recognition is continually improving, and advancements in technology have made it a reliable identification tool. However, challenges related to image quality, variations in poses, lighting conditions, or image distortions may still exist.
d) is incorrect because modern digital image analysis tools are designed to support various file formats commonly used in forensic science. Compatibility limitations can be mitigated by using software or converters to work with different file formats.
4: Which of the following techniques is commonly used for image authentication in forensic analysis?
b) Geometric transformation
c) Image filtering
d) Histogram analysis
Answer: a) Steganography
a) is correct because steganography is a technique commonly used for image authentication in forensic analysis. It involves hiding information or data within an image, which can be used for various purposes, such as watermarking, verifying image integrity, or detecting tampering.
b) is incorrect because geometric transformation techniques involve modifying the shape, size, or orientation of an image, which is not directly related to image authentication.
c) is incorrect because image filtering techniques are primarily used for noise reduction or enhancing specific image features, rather than authentication.
d) is incorrect because histogram analysis is used for examining the distribution of pixel intensities in an image, which may provide insights into image characteristics but is not specifically focused on authentication.
5: Which of the following techniques is used to match a questioned image with a large database of known images in forensic analysis?
a) Template matching
b) Texture analysis
c) Edge extraction
d) Feature extraction
Answer: a) Template matching
a) is correct because template matching is a technique commonly used to match a questioned image with an extensive database of known images in forensic analysis. It involves comparing the patterns or features in the questioned image with pre-defined templates or reference images to identify potential matches.
b) is incorrect because texture analysis focuses on analyzing the spatial arrangement and patterns of textures within an image, which may be useful for certain types of image analysis but is not specifically used for matching images in a database.
c) is incorrect because edge extraction techniques are used to identify and highlight the boundaries or edges of objects in an image, aiding in image analysis, but they are not primarily used for image matching. d) is incorrect because feature extraction techniques involve extracting meaningful and distinctive features from an image, such as corners, key points, or descriptors, which can be used for image matching but are not specific to it.