Examination of Questioned Document

A Questioned Document is one whose authenticity or credibility is disputed.

The primary goal of Questioned Document Examination is to determine the established processes of creating a document, as well as the facts and techniques of modifying its content.

Types of Questioned Document:

▪️ Banknotes in or out of formal circulation;

▪️ Travel documentation;

▪️ Postage stamps;

▪️ Lottery tickets;

▪️ Documents showing identification, occurrence, education, and job experience;

▪️ Checkbooks, deposit stamps, taxes, customs and excise, insurance policies, licenses, and other papers and securities;

▪️ The Questioned Document Examination also includes materials for document production, such as paper, ink, paste for ballpoint pens, ink, copy paper, and typewriter ribbons, etc.

▪️ Technological tools Such as: writing devices, character-printing devices, duplicating equipment, and printing plates.

▪️ Identification cards, contracts, wills, titles and deeds, seals, handwritten communications, machine-generated papers (such as those from photocopiers, fax machines, and printers), and electronic documents are examples of questioned material.

▪️ Graffiti

▪️ Digital signatures.

Methods and Tools for Examination

The methods and tools used in forensic document examinations are based on well-established physics and chemistry concepts. Questioned Documents is generally carry out with microscopes, digital imaging instrumentation, infrared and ultraviolet light sources, video analysis tools, and specialist equipment such as electrostatic detecting devices (EDD) and analytical chemical materials. A document expert’s primary essential tool would be his own her vision. In complement to this resource, the other method allows the examiner to observe, assess, and capture beyond what’s readily visible.

In order to establish the source of a questioned paper document, preliminary studies include analyzing the colour, thickness, weight, weave pattern, and fiber analysis. Further testing might include examining UV properties and comparing them using instrumental techniques.The microscope is a technique that allows you to observe evidence on documents that would otherwise be hidden and dejected. Documents may be examined using the following tools:

1. Basic Instruments: Magnifier, Microscope, Linen Tester

2. Light Sources: Transmitted light, infra-red light, UV light.

2. Magnification (magnifiers/microscopes)

4. Other Instruments/Methods:Thin Layer Chromatography, Electrostatic detection device, EDD or ESDA, Video spectral Comparator, Etc.

5. Photography: 35mm SLR camera, digital camera, copy stand, filters, extension tubes, lenses, and other items.

6. Special Computer Software

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