1. Which type of DNA is commonly analyzed in mitochondrial DNA analysis of skeletal remains?
a) Nuclear DNA
c) Y-chromosomal DNA
d) Autosomal DNA
Answer: b) Mitochondrial DNA
Explanation: The type of DNA most often examined in mitochondrial DNA analyses of skeletal remains is mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). In contrast to nuclear DNA, which is inherited from both parents, mtDNA is inherited from the mother and is a good candidate for ancient DNA research.
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2. What is the main advantage of mitochondrial DNA analysis for skeletal remains?
a) It provides a complete genetic profile of the individual.
b) It can determine the individual’s history.
c) It is resistant to degradation and contamination.
d) It can identify the individual’s physical appearance.
Answer: c) It is resistant to degradation and contamination.
Explanation: The fact that mtDNA is more resistant to degradation than nuclear DNA makes it one of the key benefits of using mitochondrial DNA analysis for skeletal remains.
3. Which region of the mitochondrial genome is often targeted for analysis?
c) Hypervariable regions
d) Promoter regions
Answer: c) Hypervariable regions
Explanation: The hypervariable regions (HVR1 and HVR2) of the mitochondrial genome are often chosen for study in mitochondrial DNA studies. These areas show the greatest individual variation and provide important details for detecting genetic variants and determining links.
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4. What is the purpose of phylogenetic analysis in mitochondrial DNA analysis?
a) To determine the individual’s age at the time of death.
b) To establish the individual’s cause of death.
c) To trace maternal lineages and migration patterns.
d) To identify specific genetic disorders.
Answer: c) To trace maternal lineages and migration patterns.
Explanation: When analysing mitochondrial DNA, phylogenetic analysis is used to build phylogenetic or family trees based on the discovered mtDNA sequences. This approach aids in tracing maternal lineages, identifying haplogroups, and examining historical trends of population movement.
5. What is the main limitation of mitochondrial DNA analysis?
a) It requires a large amount of DNA for analysis.
b) It can only be performed on living individuals.
c) It provides information about paternal lineage only.
d) It cannot determine specific physical characteristics.
Answer: d) It cannot determine specific physical characteristics.
Explanation: The precise physical qualities or attributes of a person, for example, their look or illness susceptibility, cannot be determined by mitochondrial DNA analysis, despite the fact that it offers useful information regarding maternal lineages and population genetics.