The study of crime and criminals, as well as the causes, remedies, and effects of crime on society, is known as criminology. Criminology, which began as a campaign for jail reform in the late 1800s, has developed into a multidisciplinary attempt to pinpoint the causes of crime, create efficient defenses against it, punish those who commit it, and lessen the harm it causes victims.
Criminology theory is a field of study that seeks to explain why individuals commit crimes and how society can prevent and respond to criminal behavior. There are numerous criminology theories that attempt to address these questions, including classical, positivist, and critical theories. Each theory offers a unique perspective on the causes of crime and the appropriate response to criminal behavior.
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- Biological Theories of Crime
- Criminal Justice Theories
- Cultural Transmission Theory
- Deterrence and Rational Choice Theory
- Labeling Theory and Symbolic Interaction Theory
- Psychological Theories of Crime
- Routine Activities Theory
- Self-Control Theory
- Social Construction Theory
- Social Control Theory
- Social Disorganization Theory
- Social Learning Theory
Biological Theories of Crime:
There is a school of thought that suggests biology, including heredity, brain anatomy, and hormones, might play a role in criminal behaviour.
Criminal Justice Theories:
Criminal justice theories try to explain why crime happens and how it might be avoided or punished. Societal, economic, and political contexts are common foci of these explanations.
Cultural Transmission Theory:
The cultural transmission theory suggests that illicit behavior is learned through interactions with peers, family members, and other members of an individual’s social environment.
Deterrence and Rational Choice Theory:
Both deterrence theory and rational choice theory suggest that people decide to participate in unlawful behavior after weighing the costs and benefits of doing so.
Labeling Theory and Symbolic Interaction Theory:
According to the theories of labeling and symbolic interaction, people who are branded as criminals or deviants by society may come to identify with that identity and behave accordingly.
Psychological Theories of Crime:
According to psychological theories of crime, criminal behavior may be influenced by personality characteristics, cognitive processes, and other psychological elements.
Routine Activities Theory:
Routine activities theory suggests that crime occurs when three conditions converge: a motivated offender, a suitable target, and the absence of a competent guardian.
Theory of self-control suggests that lawbreakers are more likely to be those who struggle to control their impulses.
Social Construction Theory:
What constitutes illegal or deviant behaviour may be influenced by social, cultural, and historical contexts, according to social construction theory.
Social Control Theory:
According to social control theory, those who have strong ties to traditional social institutions like family, education, and employment are less likely to participate in criminal behaviour.
Social Disorganization Theory:
According to the hypothesis of social disorganisation, areas with high crime rates are characterised by a lack of social order and social control mechanisms.
Social Learning Theory:
The idea behind social learning theory is that people pick up illegal behaviours from those they spend the most time with.