Glossary (Letter-A)

A

The purine base adenine has a single-letter nomenclature.

Purines are made up of adenine and guanine, which participate in DNA and RNA formation.

Adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) are four nucleotide building components that made DNA.

ABFO (American Board of Forensic Odontology) scales

An L-shaped piece of plastic marked with circles, black-and-white bars, and 18% grey bars used in photography to aid in distortion compensation and exposure determination. The plastic piece is marked in millimetres for measurement.

Abrasion

An injury on the skin caused by friction against a rough surface scratching off the top layer of skin.

Absorbance

The process of liquids or gases being absorbed into the body. Absorption is also the process of limiting the spread of contamination by absorbing liquid hazardous chemicals into sand, sawdust, or other substance.
As in absorbent cotton or a sponge, a mechanical phenomena in which one substance penetrates into the interior structure of another.

An optical phenomena in which atoms or molecules obstruct or decrease electromagnetic radiation transmission.

Absorption

The measure of concentration of material present; the negative log (base 10) of transmittance [–log 1/T] of product of extinction coefficient, path length, and concentration, written as A = Ebc.

Absorption band

A region of the absorption spectrum in which the absorbance passes through a maximum point.

Accelerant

Accelerant is any item used to start or spread a fire is known as an accelerant. Flammable or combustible fluids are the most prevalent accelerants. An accelerant can be a solid, a liquid, or even a gas in some cases.

Accidental pattern of fingerprint

In Fingerprints it is a subclass of whorl-type patterns that consists of a two pattern combination that does not conform to any pattern type. It usually has two or more deltas.

Acetaldehyde

Molecular Formula – C2H4O or CH3CHO

Synonyms – Ethanol, Acetic Aldehyde, Ethyl Aldehyde

A colourless liquid with a pungent, fruity odour that is highly combustible and poisonous. It is primarily used to make acetic acid, disinfectants, drugs and perfumes.

Acetate

Acetate is a salt or ester of acetic acid. A manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is called cellulose acetate. It is an ingredient used in many products like cosmetics, cleaning supplies, and textiles

Acetone

Formula: (CH3)2CO

The simplest ketone. A solvent for gunpowder. A highly flammable,water-soluble solvent.

Acetone, commonly known as Propanone, is a colourless liquid used in the production of plastics and other industrial products. Acetone is also used in a limited number of domestic products, such as cosmetics and personal care items, with the most common use being in the formulation of nail polish removers. Acetone is a byproduct of metabolism that occurs naturally in the human body.

Acid Phosphatase

A high-concentration enzyme present in seminal fluid.

The liver, spleen, bone marrow, and prostate gland produce Acid Phosphatase that acts to free phosphate under acidic circumstances.

Acid Phosphatase

A high-concentration enzyme present in seminal fluid.
The liver, spleen, bone marrow, and prostate gland produce Acid Phosphatase that acts to free phosphate under acidic circumstances.

Acid Phosphatase Test

Acid phosphatase test is one of the most extensively used and published procedures for identifying semen. This enzyme, which is commonly abbreviated as AP, is present in the male prostate gland. The prostate gland produces acid phosphatase, which is found in human seminal fluid (often referred to as prostatic acid phosphatase).

Actus Reus

⇾As opposed to the accused’s mental state, an activity or behaviour that is a basic element of a crime.

⇾The act or omission that constitutes the physical components of a crime as defined by statute is referred to as actus reus.

Acute

Severe, typically crucial, and frequently deadly situations in which pretty quick changes are taking place. Acute exposure has a relatively brief duration.

Acute Exposure

A single or multiple exposures to toxic quantities of a hazardous material over a brief period of time (usually 24 hours).

Acute Tolerance

The development of tolerance to a substance during the course of a single exposure.

ADA (adenosine deaminase)

Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme present in blood serum.

Addiction

It denotes a severe form of addiction, characterised by an overwhelming need to take a specific drug.

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

When a nucleoside triphosphate is hydrolyzed, energy is released for processes including muscular contraction and macromolecule synthesis, such as protein and glucose synthesis.

Adenine

One of the four nitrogen-containing molecules present in DNA. Designated by the letter A.

Adhesive Lifter

To lift fingerprints or footwear impressions, a number of sticky coated materials or tapes are employed. They’re most commonly used to remove powdered impressions from nonporous surfaces.

AFIS

Automated Fingerprint Identification System that enables computers to make rapid and accurate comparisons between fingerprints and the vast number of fingerprints in police records.

Adipocere

A distinctive waxy material composed of salts and fatty acids that forms from the breakdown of body tissues, particularly in damp environments; sometimes known as grave-wax.

Adjudication

↠Making a decision or announcing a judgement or decree.
↠A decision delivered by a court or administrative agency in a case.

Adsorption

Adsorption is the attachment of atoms, ions, or molecules to a surface from a gas, liquid, or dissolved solid. This process forms an adsorbate coating on the adsorbent’s surface. This differs from absorption, which occurs when a fluid (the absorbate) dissolves or permeates a liquid or solid (the absorbent).

Adulterant

A material that is used to increase the bulk of a controlled substance. Adulterants have physiological effects and provide the impression that there is more controlled drug present than there is.

Affidavit

A witness’s sworn statement.
An affidavit might be compared to a tiny article or paper for an expert witness. It is signed in the presence of a notary by the person/witness.
Affidavits have less legal weight than depositions since they cannot be cross-examined.

Agar

A seaweed-derived polysaccharide.
A gelatinous substance derived from certain red algae that is mostly utilized as a gelling agent in culture media.

Agglutination

The clumping of living cells that occurs as a result of an interaction between the cells and a suitable immune serum.

Agglutinin

A chemical result of the immunisation process that forms in blood serum and causes the red corpuscles it comes into touch with to coalesce into floccules.

Agnosia

Agnosia (from the Greek gnosis, which means “not knowing”) is a neurological disease in which a patient is unable to recognise and identify things, people, or noises using one or more of their senses, despite the fact that their senses are otherwise normal. Because the person is unable to process sensory information, it is a sensory disorder.

Albumin

A heat-coagulable, water-soluble protein found in egg white, blood serum, milk, and a variety of animal and vegetable tissues.

Arterial Spray

Bloodstain pattern caused when a major artery or vein is cut open.

Automated Fingerprint Identification System

A computer system that electronically compares unknown latent prints to prints in a database of known persons. The computer produces a list of possible matches that meet the satisfying criteria. An official print examiner then determines whether or not there is a definitive match.

Autolysis

Also called the fresh stage, the beginning stage of decay, marked by the breakdown of blood and tissue inside the body.

Autopsy

The examination of a deceased body to determine the cause, manner, and sometimes mechanism of death.

Bloodstain pattern caused when a major artery or vein is cut open.